Loyola University

Drug Free Schools Act Amendments of 1989 Memorandum Documenting Effectiveness and Consistency Reviews

June 2014

 

This memorandum documents review of Loyola University’s alcohol and other drug (AOD) harm reduction and enforcement programs, and intervention, referral, and support services, for effectiveness and consistency. This review applies to programs and services for students only. The University’s Student Development Division through efforts of the Office of Student Life, Campus Police, and the Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services, and Health Promotions Department (ADESS-HP), is primarily responsible for AOD services and enforcement of sanctions for drug and alcohol related violations of community standards by its students. The University’s AOD programs and policies for employees, including its Employee Assistance Program, are the responsibility of the institution’s Department of Human Resources and are not documented here.

 

Consistency of Alcohol and Other Drug Programs

 

The University continues (evidence of consistency) its multi-faceted approach to address drug and alcohol use, summarized here:

 

I.              In 2013, Loyola University Maryland implemented the use of Think About It, an interactive, online educational program that is used by numerous colleges in the U.S. Loyola has committed to use of this program for at least two more years;

 

II.            Through our social norms campus wide educational program that seeks to reduce irresponsible alcohol or other drug (AOD) use by correcting students’ perceptions that irresponsible use is a Loyola norm;

 

III.           Through our ongoing use of the conduct system to provide students with consequences for AOD related violations of community standards such as the underage drinking laws and laws prohibiting use of illegal psychoactive drugs;

 

IV.           Through our use of the conduct system to mandate students found responsible for AOD related violations of community standards to the Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services, and Health Promotions Department (ADESS-HP) for AOD harm reduction education, for evaluations as to the presence or not of a diagnosable problem with AOD, and treatment for those with AOD abuse or dependence diagnoses (alcohol or drug use disorders); and

 

V.            Through multiple opportunities offered by the college to become involved in pro-social activities, such as retreats, service work, recreational sports, clubs, plus fun events including dances, theater, movies, Orioles games, and free food late at night on weekends.

 

VI.         Through the campus-wide Loyola AOD Committee: This committee was active especially in developing a foundation for policies related to alcohol overdose situations and students’ reactions to seeking help that may be influenced by fear of judicial consequences. A student subcommittee has been working on data compilation on which to base a recommendation to the VP for Student Development.

 

VII.        Athletics: ADESS-HP supports the Athletic Department’s random urine drug screen Program; by evaluating and providing counseling to athletes who had positive urine drug screens.

 

Attached is the annual report of ADESS-HP for 2013-2014 (Appendix I).

 

All students responsible for violating the Drug policy are required to complete a Drug Screening with ADESS-HP. If needed, students will be referred for additional drug treatment on and off campus. All student offenders are required to complete mandatory drug tests, which are done multiple times throughout an academic year. The tests are random and students are not made aware of when the tests will be scheduled. Students may also be sanctioned to complete the Brief Intervention for Marijuana program, which consists of two individual sessions utilizing motivational interviewing techniques to educate students about risks associated with marijuana use.


With regard to the consistency of disciplinary sanctions for alcohol and drug violations, all students who are found responsible for a simple alcohol violation, typically students with underage possession of alcohol violations are sanctioned to complete alcohol education at ADESS-HP. The first such violation is a 90 minute group education session; a second alcohol violation will result in the student being mandated to a two session individual intervention with a counselor at ADESS-HP, utilizing the evidence based BASICS program. A third violation of alcohol policy typically will result in a mandate for an evaluation by an ADESS-HP counselor as to the presence or not of an alcohol use disorder diagnosis with the requirement that the student follow treatment/education interventions prescribed by ADESS-HP. All students who are found responsible for drug violations are sanctioned to complete an evaluation by an ADESS-HP counselor as to the presence or not of a substance use disorder diagnosis with the requirement that the student follow treatment/education interventions prescribed by ADESS-HP. Students who are frequent or habitual drug users are suspended from the University, with the condition for return to the University being completion of a drug/alcohol treatment program. Students who are found responsible for drug distribution are expelled from the University.

 

With regard to recommendations for revising AOD prevention programs and/or policies, the ADESS-HP Office, Student Life, Campus Police, and Student Government Association have been discussing implementing a Responsible Action Protocol which outlines how students should intervene when made aware that someone has consumed too much alcohol. In addition, the alcohol policies are reviewed annually during the Community Standards review process.

 

Effectiveness

 

The combined disciplinary, education and treatment interventions are considered to be  highly effective, particularly in reducing recidivism. For example, during the 2013-2014 academic year, 15 students were required to complete mandatory drug testing as part of their sanction. Any student with a positive test result, received further treatment. During the 2013-14 academic year none of the students who were drug tested, had a positive test.

 

Ninety-nine point eight percent of all sanctions assigned to students for alcohol and drug violations were completed. These sanctions include individual screening with ADESS-HP, on and off campus drug treatment, mandatory drug testing, BASICS session, and educational interventions. The recidivism rate for students who receive disciplinary sanctions for alcohol and/or drug policy violations is 11.9%

 

In terms of effectiveness of the University’s programs to address the culture of frequent drinking, defined as drinking three or more times per week, Note Figure 1 of Attachment D where the data show that the number of students drinking three or more times per week has dropped from 33% in 2008 to 15% in 2013. Similarly, Figure 2 of Attachment D shows some positive effects of our multiple interventions since 2010: The average number of drinks consumed by a Loyola student has decreased from 5.7 drinks in 2010 to 4.8 in 2013.

 

 

Areas for Investigation and Revision

 

Over the past year there has been an ongoing discussion with the Student Government Association with regard to the perceived (but not yet validated by data) obstacle to student intervention in the case of drug or alcohol overdose based on fear of judicial consequences. Data is being compiled to devise strategies based on science rather than perception.

 

Educational interventions and revision of policies are planned to address issues arising in the residence halls that house students who are underage and those who are 21 and can drink legally.

 

 

 

Zachary Hitchens, M.S., NCC Assistant Director

Student Support and Wellness Promotion


Attachment A

 

ADESS 2013-2014 Annual Report

 

Mission Statement for ADESS-HP:

The mission of Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services, and Health Promotions (ADESS-HP) is consistent with Loyola’s Jesuit traditions in seeking to aid in creating a diverse campus community that facilitates and enhances student physical, emotional, and spiritual growth, and learning and development. Our student focused approach for addressing substance related issues is based on our respect and value for every student’s unique identity, perspective, and life experience. Abuse of alcohol and use of other psychoactive substances can seriously impede such student growth, learning, and development. ADESS is committed to helping students to make healthy and responsible choices with regard to drug and alcohol use and to reducing the negative consequences associated with irresponsible alcohol and other drug use that adversely effects not only the student engaged in such behaviors but those around them.

 

Divisional Learning Outcomes for the Department:

As a result of actively engaging in the Loyola community and our programs or services, students will:

Ø  Demonstrate behaviors that foster personal/interpersonal health and well being

Ø  Develop and maintain healthy interpersonal relationships

 

Evidence of Achievement of Learning Outcomes:

Demonstrate behaviors that foster personal/interpersonal health and well-being:

 

Based on outcomes data from our CHOICE program, we have been able to quantify the degree to which our programs help to foster healthy behaviors. After attending CHOICE, 90.7% (n=216) of students indicated that as a result of the program they intend to change their drinking. Of students who responded, 96.8% reported that the program helped them to re-evaluate the dinking culture at Loyola. Finally, 97.7% of students indicated that the program helped them examine the possible risks from their own substance use.

 

Develop and maintain healthy interpersonal relationships:

 

Over the past year ADESS-HP saw an increase in the number of sessions that students attended, with a 6% increase in the number of students having 2 or more sessions.

Another indicator of our success in building interpersonal relationships, is demonstrated by the number of students who came for counseling who were not mandated via the campus conduct system. This year we had 26 students come in for initial sessions, versus 2 students the previous year. (Initial session is the scheduling code used for students who are referred to our office by another member of the campus community or are coming in on their own).

 

Utilization data for your department this year (number of programs, services, and attendees):

ADESS provided clinical and educational services to 352 students, which represents a 14.7% increase as compared to the 2012-13 academic year. Our services totaled 695.25 hours of student contact, a 4.8% increase from last year. For a complete analysis of our clinical programs please see Appendix I. In addition to our clinical and educational interventions, we conducted 18 presentations for the campus community, mostly for Messina enrichment hours.


Highlights from the 2013-2014 Year (Analysis of the Impact)

This year ADESS-HP continued to provide high-quality educational and therapeutic interventions for the campus community. Our first highlight was the implementation of Think About It for all incoming students. We had 846 students complete all three parts of the program, which allowed us to gather data on how our students changed throughout their first year. The data has been compiled into a report that will be shared with the division. Working in collaboration with Student Life, we are now able to assign the alcohol sanction module to students who have conduct incidences while abroad, and to students who would have to wait for an extended period of time to fulfill their educational sanction (i.e., students who are documented at the end of the year and are going abroad in the fall).

Loyola University Marylandhas been an active participant in the Maryland State Collaborative to Reduce College Drinking and Related Problems. In addition to Father Linnane being a member of the Presidents Governance Council, Cindy Parcover represents Loyola and the field of practitioners on the Advisory Board for the Collaborative. Zachary Hitchens and Cindy Parcover have attended several trainings on environmental and individual strategies hosted by the Collaborative throughout the year. We have developed an Environmental Strategies committee, which has met a number of times to facilitate the goal of addressing underage and excessive drinking at liquor establishments on York Rd. In an effort to maintain and enhance partnerships, Loyola has cooperated with Baltimore Police in working with students following several compliance checks at bars on York Rd. Campus police has shared that following these compliance checks, there have been smaller crowds at the targeted bars and a reduction in alcohol related incidents. Furthermore, ADESS-HP   staff have experienced increased student awareness of the risks of underage drinking off- campus and of using a fake ID.                                  Additionally, ADESS-HP collaborated with the State Collaborative in developing and administering the Maryland College Alcohol Survey at Loyola in the spring semester. 595 students completed the State Collaborative Survey (23.9% response rate) and data will be presented by the Collaborative representatives in July.

The 2013-14 year was also busy for the ADAPT peer education group who continued to provide educational and social programing for the campus community. During the fall 2013 semester, ADAPT members partnered with RAs to host educational programs in at least one residence hall every week. In addition to residence hall programs, ADAPT facilitated a discussion with first-year students about the drinking culture of Loyola and shared social norms data, as well as alternative activities, both on and around campus.

ADAPT continued to host monthly karaoke nights this year, and in December changed the venue from the Reading Room, to inside Bolder during Midnight Breakfast. Changing the location was a tremendous success, and resulted in increased student participation.

Anecdotally, the ADAPT members observed that students were staying at Midnight Breakfast longer to sing or watch others sing. The feedback that the ADAPT members received from students indicated that they enjoyed having activities at Midnight Breakfast and looked forward to karaoke the following months.


FALL 2013

Fall 2013 Appointment Codes


Appendix I


Intervention

Number of Students Served

Individual Screening

44

BASICS

15

BIM

4

Consultation

1

Initial Appointment

12

CHOICE

137

Individual Follow Up

22


Spring 2014

Intervention

Number of Students Served

Individual Screening

35

BASICS

39

BIM

3

Consultation

1

Initial Appointment

14

CHOICE

111

Individual Follow Up

28


Student Demographics

 

Screening

 

Gender

 

Fall 2013

Spring 2014

Female

17

10

Male

32

24

Total

49

34

 

Class Year

 

Fall 2013

Spring 2014

First Year

18

13

Sophomore

18

8

Junior

4

6

Senior

8

5

Other

1

1

No Response

0

1

Total

49

34

 

Race

 

Fall 2013

Spring 2014

African-American/Black

2

1

Asian-American/Asian

0

1

Caucasian/White

40

28

Hispanic/Latino(a)

2

1

Multi-racial

3

2

Prefer not to answer

1

0

No response

1

1

Total

49

34

 

Screenings were the only intervention that we were able to gather demographic data for. We will be changing our forms so that demographic data can be gathered for all of our interventions in the future.

Explanation of ADESS-HP Interventions for Judicial Referrals

Attachment B


The ADESS-HP Department seeks to foster an environment that supports responsible decision-making regarding alcohol and other drug use, on the Loyola campus and in the Baltimore community. Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services office provides a number of services, supports, and programs to fulfill this philosophy. Below are lists of interventions offered to students with alcohol or other drug use concerns, and for students who are sanctioned through the judicial system.

 

Service

Explanation of Service

Criteria

CHOICE (choosing healthy options in campus environment)

CHOICE is a 90 minute session.

Students who go through the CHOICE program will:

·         Thoughtfully reflect and discern on their drinking behaviors and choices.

·         Examine risks associated with alcohol and other drug use.

·         Articulate strategies to make safer choices about drinking.

·         Obtain accurate information about social norms at Loyola

·         First time underage drinking sanction

BASICS (Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students)

BASICS is an evidenced based program designed to reduce harm associated drinking, conducted in two individual 60 minute session with a trained counselor.

Students that go through the BASICS program will:

·         Examine their alcohol use through the personalized feedback report

·         Debunk myths and increase the their base of accurate information about alcohol and its effects

·         Devise strategies to minimize risks associated with alcohol use.

·         Increase motivation to change current risky behaviors, and problem solving about potential barriers that might compromise initiation or maintenance of change

·         Identify realistic strategies to reduce their risk of future problems and make safer choices.

·         Obtain comparison of their alcohol use with other students at Loyola University Maryland.

·         Second underage drinking sanction

Evaluations

Students will be evaluated by a licensed counselor to identify what program will best meet the needs of that student. Possible outcomes include recommendations to:

·         CHOICE program

·         BASICS

·         BASICS plus- up to 6 week personalized program designated for college students to reduce harm associated with drinking by developing strategies, goal setting and increasing motivation to change.

·         AOD Counseling

·         Group programs

·         Referral to Loyola University Maryland Counseling center

·         Referral to outside AOD program

·         12 step program

·         Third underage drinking sanction

·         Underage drinking with negative behavior

·         Drug violation

·         Alcohol transport

·         High risk alcohol use

·         A student experiencing consequences from their alcohol use:

o    Behaviors against values

o    Blacking out

o    Taken foolish risks

o    Neglected obligations

o    Missed classes

·         Drinking has created problems with friends, family.


 

Stick Figure Campaign


Attachment C


Utilizing a grant that the office received we hired a senior communications student to create new posters reflecting the data gathered from our 2013 implementation of the Loyola University Student Survey (LUSS). In addition to hanging these posted in residence halls and on campus busses, they were also displayed on the electronic signage across campus. A sign that this campaign was successful was evidenced again this year by the fact that students took down posters for their residence hall rooms. A number students contacted the office seeking copies of the posters. Here are some of the posters used:

 

 

 

       


 

Behavioral trends

Figure 1


Attachment D


Figure 2


Figure 3