Loyola University

Drug Free Schools Act Amendments of 1989

Memorandum Documenting Effectiveness and Consistency Reviews

September 2012

 

This memorandum documents review of Loyola University’s alcohol and other drug (AOD) harm reduction and enforcement programs, and intervention, referral, and support services, for effectiveness and consistency. This review applies to programs and services for students only. The University’s Student Development Division through efforts of the Office of Student Life, Campus Police, and the Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services Department (ADESS), is primarily responsible for AOD services and enforcement of sanctions for drug and alcohol related violations of community standards by its students. The College’s AOD programs and policies for employees, including its Employee Assistance Program, are the responsibility of the institution’s Department of Human Resources and are not documented here.

 

Consistency of Alcohol and Other Drug Programs

 

The College continues (evidence of consistency) its multi-faceted approach to address drug and alcohol use, summarized here:

 

I.               Since 2008, through use of AlcoholEdu, an interactive, online educational program that is used by over 400 colleges in the U.S.  Loyola has committed to use of this program for at least two more years;

 

II.             Through our social norms campus wide educational program that seeks to reduce irresponsible alcohol or other drug (AOD) use by correcting students’ perceptions that irresponsible use is a Loyola norm;

 

III.           Through our ongoing use of the disciplinary system to provide students with consequences for AOD related violations of community standards such as the underage drinking laws and laws prohibiting use of illegal psychoactive drugs;

 

IV.       Through our use of the disciplinary system to mandate students found responsible for AOD related violations of community standards to the Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services Department (ADESS) for AOD harm reduction education, for evaluations as to the presence or not of a diagnosable problem with AOD, and treatment for those with AOD abuse or dependence diagnoses; and

 

V.       Through multiple opportunities offered by the college to become involved in pro-social activities, such as retreats, service work, recreational sports, clubs, plus fun events including dances, theater, movies, Orioles games, and free food late at night on weekends.

 

VI.      Through the campus-wide Loyola AOD Committee: This committee was active especially in developing a foundation for policies related to alcohol overdose situations and students’ reactions to seeking help that may be influenced by fear of judicial consequences. A student subcommittee has been working on data compilation on which to base a recommendation to the VP for Student Development.

     

      VII.    Athletics: ADESS supported the Athletic Department’s new random urine drug screen

    Program (Jan Williams of ADESS helped Athletic Director Jim Paquette in developing     the Program last year), evaluating six athletes who had positive urine drug screens. The six athletes were provided education and counseling.

 

Attached is the annual report of ADESS for 2011-2012 (Appendix I).

 

All students responsible for violating the Drug policy are required to complete a Drug Screening with ADESS.  If needed, students will be referred for additional drug treatment on and off campus.  All students offenders are required to complete mandatory drug tests, which are done multiple times throughout an academic year.  The tests are random and students are not made aware of when the tests will be scheduled.  Students may also be sanctioned to complete Marijuana 101, an online marijuana education program. 

 

With regards to the consistency of disciplinary sanctions for alcohol and drug violations, all students who are found responsible for a simple alcohol violations, typically underage possession of alcohol, are sanctioned to complete alcohol education at ADESS, the first such violation being a 90 minute group education session; a second alcohol violation will result in the student being mandated to a two session individual intervention with a counselofr at ADESS, utilizing the evidence based BASICS program. A third violation of alcohol policy typically will result in a mandate for an evaluation by an ADESS counselor as to the presence or not of alcohol abuse or dependence diagnosis with the requirement that the student follow treatment/education interventions prescribed by ADESS. All students who are found responsible for drug violations are sanctioned to complete an evaluation by an ADESS counselor as to the presence or not of a drug abuse or dependence diagnosis with the requirement that the student follow treatment/education interventions prescribed by ADESS. Students who are frequent or habitual drug users are suspended from the University, with the condition for return to the University being completion of a drug/alcohol treatment program. Students who are found responsible for drug distribution are expelled from the University.

 

With regards to recommendations for revising AOD prevention programs and/or policies, the ADESS Office, Student Life, Campus Police, and Student Government Association have been discussing implementing a Responsible Action Protocol which outlines how students should intervene when made aware that someone has consumed too much alcohol. In addition, the alcohol policies are reviewed annually during the Community Standards review process.

 

Effectiveness

 

The combined disciplinary, education and treatment interventions are considered to be highly effective, particularly in reducing recidivism.  For example, during the 2011-2012 academic year, 29 students were required to complete mandatory drug testing as part of their sanction.  Of the 29 students, only 1 student tested positive for using a prohibited drug.  As a result of the positive test, the student received further treatment, which was successfully completed. 

 

93% of all sanctions assigned to students for drug violations were completed.  These sanctions include Drug Screening with ADESS, on and off campus drug treatment, mandatory drug testing, and online education programs.  The recidivism rate for students who receive disciplinary sanctions for Drug policy violations is less than 2%.  Additionally, the retention rate for students who receive sanctions for Drug policy violations is 94%.  

 

In terms of effectiveness of the University’s programs in addressing the culture of irresponsible or binge drinking, note Appendix G of Attachment I where the data show that Binge drinking (5 or more by men and 4 or more by women during a drinking event) has dropped from 71% in 2008 to 57% in 2011. Similarly, Attachment H of Appendix I shows some positive effects of our AlcoholEdu interventions since 2008: The percentage of high risk drinkers has dropped from 49% in 2008 to 44% in 2011 and the number of abstainers has increased from 32% in 2008 to 38% in 2011.

 

Areas for Investigation and Revision

 

Over this past year there has been discussion with the Student Government Association in regard to the perceived (but not yet validated by data) obstacle to student intervention in the case of drug or alcohol overdose based on fear of judicial consequences. Data is being compiled to devise strategies based on science rather than perception.

 

Educational interventions and revision of policies are planned to address issues arising in the residence halls where there are students who are underage and those who are 21 and can drink legally.

 

Jan Edward Williams, MS, JD, LCADC

Director ADESS

September 2012

 

Appendix I

Annual Report 2011-2012: Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services (ADESS)

Executive Summary

 

Mission and Core Values

Alcohol and drug abuse adversely affects student physical, spiritual, emotional growth, learning and development, and impedes pursuit of the University’s core values such as academic excellence, integrity and honesty, and community. ADESS educational and counseling interventions are designed to help students to make healthy and responsible choices in regard to drug and alcohol use and to reduce the negative environmental consequences associated therewith (see Attachment A).


Continuing Accomplishments that Support Core Values

ADESS’ certified outpatient treatment program provides addictions counseling and education to students needing same, including access to 12 Step meetings on and near campus. See Attachment B for Explanation of ADESS educational Interventions and Appendices C and D for data about such interventions (CHOICES (234 students), BASICS (41 students), and Evaluations (156 students)). ADESS, posted online the Drug Free Schools Act annual “Standards and Sanctions, Health Information and Services” for undergraduate and graduate students, and helped Human Resources to do the same for college employees; presented to FE classes and participated in summer and fall orientations for first year students. ADESS distributed to parents Conversations for the Car Ride Home. 

 

Highlights:

 


Learning Outcomes (see Attachment F)

 

AlcoholEdu and ADESS educational and counseling interventions help students reflect on and assess their alcohol consumption and the ways that it affects their decisions and impacts others, and can directly result in retaining a student at Loyola, and indirectly help with retention of students adversely impacted by a disruptive alcohol use environment.


Summary Description of Year

 

This past year can be described as challenging. ADESS was without an associate director. We used our budget to pay for a graduate assistant to help provide educational interventions for judicial referrals. Additional challenges stem from the refractory nature of the drinking culture. However, there are encouraging signs of a reduction in irresponsible drinking since 2003. See Attachments G and H.


Goals

 

Goals include providing education to faculty, including core advisers, about students’ alcohol use and developmental issues driving such use; continue to develop educational programming regarding drug and alcohol overdose situations; develop intensive intervention for judicially referred students who have done CHOICES and BASICS; develop approaches at ADESS to make the Office more inviting to students of color; and work with ALANA Services on issues related to impact of drinking culture on students of color.

 

Jan Edward Williams, MS, JD, LCADC
June 2012

 

Attachment A

ADESS Mission Statement                     

The mission of Loyola University’s Department of Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services (ADESS) is consistent with Loyola University’s Jesuit traditions in seeking to aid in creating a campus community that facilitates and enhances student physical, emotional, and spiritual growth and learning and development. Abuse of alcohol and use of other psychoactive substances can seriously impede such student growth, learning, and development. ADESS is committed to helping students to make healthy and responsible choices in regard to drug and alcohol use and to reducing the negative consequences associated with alcohol and other drug use some students may experience.

 

Attachment B
Explanation of ADESS Interventions for Judicial Referrals                                 

The ADESS Department seeks to foster an environment that supports responsible decision-making regarding alcohol and other drug use, on the Loyola campus and in the Baltimore community. Alcohol and Drug Education and Support Services office provides a number of services, supports, and programs to fulfill this philosophy. Below are lists of interventions offered to students with alcohol or other drug use concerns, and for students who are sanctioned through the judicial system.

Service

Explanation of Service

Criteria

CHOICE (choosing healthy options in campus environment)

CHOICE is a 90 minute session.

Students who go through the CHOICE program will:

  • Thoughtfully reflect and discern on their drinking behaviors and choices.
  • Examine risks associated with alcohol and other drug use.
  • Articulate strategies to make safer choices about drinking.
  • Obtain accurate information about social norms at Loyola

Š      First time underage drinking sanction

BASICS (Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students)

BASICS is an evidenced based program designed to reduce harm associated drinking, conducted in two individual 60 minute session with a trained counselor.

Students that go through the BASICS program will:

Š       Examine their alcohol use through the personalized feedback report

Š       Debunk myths and increase the their base of accurate information about alcohol and its effects

Š       Devise strategies to minimize risks associated with alcohol use.

Š       Increase motivation to change current risky behaviors, and problem solving about potential barriers that might compromise initiation or maintenance of change

Š       Identify realistic strategies to reduce their risk of future problems and make safer choices.

Š        Obtain comparison of their alcohol use with other students at Loyola University Maryland.

Š      Second underage drinking sanction

 

 

Evaluations

Students will be evaluated by a licensed counselor to identify what program will best meet the needs of that student. Possible outcomes include recommendations to:

Š      CHOICE program

Š      BASICS

Š      BASICS plus- up to 6 week personalized program designated for college students to reduce harm associated with drinking by developing strategies, goal setting and increasing motivation to change.

Š      AOD Counseling

Š      Group programs

Š      Referral to Loyola University Maryland Counseling center

Š      Referral to outside AOD program

Š      12 step program

 

Š      Third underage drinking sanction

Š      Underage drinking with negative behavior

Š      Drug violation

Š      Alcohol transport

Š      High risk alcohol use

Š      A student experiencing consequences from their alcohol use:

o   Behaviors against values

o   Blacking out

o   Taken foolish risks

o   Neglected obligations

o   Missed classes

o   Drinking has created problems with friends, family.

                                                                                                                        Attachment C

 

ADESS Fall 2011 Data on Education and Evaluations

 

BASICS (2 individual sessions)          CHOICE (90 min. Group)                       Evaluations

Total Students: 20

Total Students: 163 (23 classes)

Total Students: 70

6 females      14 males

95 males     68 females

Gender & class data lost on switch to digital records

2 freshmen

71 freshmen

Follow up sessions: 64

12 sophomores

49 sophomores

11 were students from area universities (MICA, JHU)

5 juniors

23 juniors

 

1 Senior

16 seniors

(4 unknown)

 

 

ADESS Spring 2012 Data Summary

 

BASICS (2 individual Sessions) CHOICE (90 min. Group)              Evaluations

Total Students: 21

71 Students (18 classes)

Total Students: 86

5 females    16 males

19 females     52 males

29 females   57 males

7 freshmen

36 freshmen

26 freshmen

9 sophomores

16 sophomores

15 sophomore

3 juniors

12 juniors

21 juniors

2 seniors

6 seniors

18 seniors  (unknown 4)

 

1 unknown

Follow up sessions: 24

 

Attachment D

The significance of the reductions in use and consequences  in the data below is difficult to assess, as the pre-assessment data covered the entire past year; while the post-education data covered the past 30 days. However, it is known that first year students are at risk to develop abuse problems during their first weeks in the residence halls.

 

CHOICES Program Data:  Pre-assessment and 4-6 week follow-up after educational intervention

Behavior

Pre – experienced within past year (N = 234)

Post – experienced in past 30 days (N = 81)

Used marijuana

36.3%

12.3%

Used cocaine

2.8%

1.2%

Used prescription stimulants

13.2%

3.9%

Used prescription pain meds

3.3%

2.5%

Had a hangover

73.4%

79.1%

Blacked out

48.3%

37.2%

Performed poorly at school

22.2%

7.0%

Damaged property

11.9%

4.7%

Had unwanted sex

13.7%

4.7%

Gone to ER

2.8%

2.3%

Family History Alcoholism= 49%

(35-40% of students have such a history per summer orientation data)

 

 


CHOICES Program Data: Mean number of drinks consumed Pre= before education,  and Post=4-6 weeks after session

Day of week

Pre – Mean number of drinks consumed

(past 30 days). N= 212

Post – Mean number of drinks consumed (past 30 days)

N=81

Sunday

0.35

0.37

Monday

0.23

0.15

Tuesday

0.34

0.09

Wednesday

1.27

0.69

Thursday

1.35

1.46

Friday

5.34

4.94

Saturday

5.40

5.01

 

BASICS Program Data:  Pre-assessment and 4-6 week follow-up

Behavior

Pre – experienced within past year (N = 41)

Post – experienced in past 30 days (N = 13)

Used marijuana

31.0%

15.4%

Used cocaine

4.8%

7.7%

Used prescription stimulants

28.4%

15.4%

Used prescription pain meds

4.8%

7.7%

 

 

(N = 8) for following

Had a hangover

78.6%

100%%

Blacked out

56.1%

50%%

Performed poorly at school

35.7%

12.5%

Damaged property

14.3%

12.5%

Had unwanted sex

9.5%

0%

Gone to ER

7.1%

0%

Family History Alcoholism= 59.5%. (35-40% of students have such a history per summer orientation data)

 

 

 

Attachment E

Stick Figure Campaign

The stick figure campaign, a risk reduction poster campaign, was continued. The campaign included 10 prevention messages, four posters provide safety tips for people who choose to drink alcohol (setting limits, serving size, blood alcohol concentration, and combination of alcohol and energy drinks), three posters were aimed at friends helping friends in the face of a potential dangerous situation with alcohol (alcohol poisoning, bystander intervention, and sexual decision making) and two posters supported not drinking alcohol, whether that is a decision one makes from time to time or all the time. An additional presented signs of a more serious problem with alcohol.  A sign that this campaign was successful was evidenced again this year by the fact that students took down posters for their residence hall rooms. A number students contacted the office seeking copies of the posters. Here are some of the posters used:

Description: C:\Users\jwilliams\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\170GNBF5\kinda scary when.small.jpg

Description: C:\Users\jwilliams\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\1ZYUFH12\SizeMatters.2011.small.jpg    Description: C:\Users\jwilliams\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\EWCAB01Q\SketchyHookups.2011.small.jpg

 

Attachment F

Learning Outcomes

 

ADESS is certified by the State of Maryland, Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (No. 316) for outpatient treatment of alcohol and other drug abuse or dependence, and, therefore, its programs, processes, files, charts, and policies and procedures are regulated by the State. The Program is subjected to accreditation by the State every two years.

 

An Educationally Purposeful Environment: Demonstrate Behaviors that foster personal/ interpersonal health and well being

 

AlcoholEdu gives students the tools to foster their personal health and well-being as a priority prior to coming onto campus. Education interventions (CHOICES BASICS, and evaluations and counseling) allow students to reflect on and assess their alcohol consumption and the ways that it affects their health and wellbeing with discussion of balanced social life, meaning of moderation, and discussion of healthy choices and strategies.

 

Peer Educators (ADAPT) are challenged through trainings, meetings and activities to focus on choices to develop their mind, body and spirit, and also to challenge others to do the same with a wellness focus.

 

These Interventions (CHOICES, BASICS and evaluations and counseling) also have students reflect on what role their alcohol consumption plays in identifying the person that they are, who they hope to be, and what they plan to accomplish during their time at Loyola. Students also reflect on the ways in which their consumption affects others and what that means in regard to relationships.

 

Caring Community: Develop and Maintain healthy interpersonal relationships

Education interventions (CHOICES, BASICS and evaluations and counseling) provide students with the skills for healthier alcohol consumption and for assessing the balance in their social lives.  Students also assess the way that their consumption affects those around them. 

Peer Educators (ADAPT) communicate their thoughts, opinions, and ideas and encourage students on campus to do the same through facilitated discussion about wellness in relationship to alcohol and other drugs through classroom presentations, residence hall programming, awareness week events, and campus messaging. ADAPT peer educators encourage ongoing discussion on campus for students to share thoughts and ideas about the campus culture, and their experiences.

Peer educators (ADAPT) advocate for positive community standards and norms by educating themselves about what is going on at Loyola, and educating their peers about this information. Peer educators also educate professors, administrators, and staff as well as students to cultivate change in the community. Peer educators educate through classroom presentations, residence hall presentations, awareness week events, as well as general conversations and modeling behaviors.

 

Challenges

The challenges stem from the refractory nature of the culture that it is a norm for students to drink irresponsibly several times a week. Contributors to this refractory culture are faculty, administrators and staff; therefore, ADESS will continue its efforts to educate all members of the University community.

 

Attachment G

Summary of Alcohol Use Trends 2003-2011

First Year Students

Binge drinking (five or more by men and four or more by women during a drinking event) has dropped from 71% in 2008 to 57% in 2011. The reason for the decline are unclear. Perhaps the increase in diversity of the student population in recent years may play a role

 

 

Attachment H

AlcoholEdu Data

Data represents student responses collected in Survey 3, 30-45 days after completing AlcoholEdu for College. The percentage of high risk drinkers has dropped from 49% in 2008 to 44% in 2011 and the number of abstainers has increased from 32% in 2008 to 38% in 2011.

Drinking Related risk Behaviors

Anecdotally it has been clear that Loyola students do a lot of “pregaming" (drinking before going out to bars) and shots of liquor. The data below show Loyola students exceeding National Averages for shot and pregaming.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After completing AlcoholEdu, Loyola Maryland students reported an increase in several positive behavioral intentions. Programming efforts aimed at further promoting these behaviors can reinforce the messages students received through AlcoholEdu.

 

ADESS.Annual.Report.2011-2012

drugfreeact.doc.2012.rtf