Loyola University Maryland

Department of History

How to Create a Bibliography

The bibliography comes after the notes. Bibliography pages should also be numbered consecutively. Only works cited in the notes may be listed in the Bibliography. Entries should be listed alphabetically; they should not be numbered.

Formatting the Bibliographic Entry

The bibliography is single-spaced, while the second and subsequent lines of a bibliographic entry are indented five spaces (which makes it easier to find the item). The name of the author in a bibliographic entry is reversed - last name followed by first name for ease of alphabetization. However, in the case of two or more authors, only the name of the first author is inverted while the second and subsequent authors appear in normal order. In the bibliographical entry, commas are replaced by periods. The same format is applicable to online source materials as well.

Sample Bibliographical References

One Author

Brzezinski, Zbigniew K. Between Two Ages: America's Role in the
      Technetronic Era
. New York: Viking Press, 1970.

Two Authors

Lipset, Seymour Martin and Reinhard Bendix. Social Mobility in
      Industrial America
. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959.


Corrigan, Robert W., ed., Arthur Miller: A Collection of Critical Essays.
      Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969.

Author's Work in a Book Edited by Another Author

Minces, Juliette. "Women in Algeria." In Women in the Muslim World.
      Edited by Lois Beck and Nikki Keddie, 159-171. Cambridge, MA:
      Harvard University Press, 1978.

Article in a Scholarly Journal

Kaplowitz, Stan A. "The Influence of Moral Consideration on the
      Perceived Consequences of an Action." Journal of Conflict
21 (September, 1977): 475-500.

Article in a General Interest Magazine

Oster, Patrick R. "Free Press vs. Fair Trial: A Classic Collision." U.S.
      News and World Report
, 23 February 1976,44-45.

Untitled, Unsigned Article in an Old Newspaper

The New York Journal and Newsboy (New York City, 1774).

Signed Article in a More Recent Newspaper

Gordon, Craig. "Loyola Beats Georgetown, 55-54." Baltimore Sun,
      12 February 1949, A, 1.

Personal Web Site

Pellegrino, Joseph. "Homepage." 12 May 1999.
      (12 June 1999).

Professional Web Site

Mortimer, Gail. The William Faulkner Society Home Page. 16
      September 1999. http://www.utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/
      mainfaulkner.htm (19 November 1997).

Online Book

Bryant, Peter J. "The Age of Mammals." In Biodiversity and
April 1999. <http:/'/darwin.bio.uci.edu/~
      sustain/bio65/index.html> (11 May 1999).

Article in an Electronic Journal (Ejournal)

Browning, Tonya. "Embedded Visuals: Student Design in Web
      Spaces. Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed
3, no. 1 (1997). http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/
      2:l/features/browning/index.html (21 October 1999).

Article in an Electronic Magazine (Ezine)

Myhrvold Nathan. "Confessions of a Cybershaman." Slate 12
      June 1997. http://www.slate.com/CriticalMass/97-06-12/
      CriticalMass.asp (19 October 1997).

Online Newspaper Article

Wren, Christopher. "A Body on Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved."
      New York Times on the Web 5 May 1999. <http://search.nytimes.
      22a7Ebody7Eon7Emt.7Eeverest22> (13 May 1999).

Online Review

Parfit, Michael, review of The Climb: Tragic Ambitions on Everest, by
      Anatoli Boukreev and G. Weston DeWalt, New York Times on the
      Web 7 December 1997. http://search.nytimes.com/books/97/12/07/

Online Government Publication

Bush, George. "Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers
      and Employees." Executive Order 12674. 12 April 1989, pt. 1,
      http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eol2674.html (30 October 1997).

Email Message

Franke, Norman. "SoundApp 2.0.2." 29 April 1996. personal
      email (3 May 1996).

Web Discussion Forum Posting

LaLiberte, Daniel. "HyperNews Instructions." 23 May 1996.
       /instructions.html> (24 May 1996).

Listserv Message

Parente, Victor. "On Expectations of Class Participation."
      27 May 1996. philosed@sued.syr.edu (29 May 1996).

Newsgroup Message

Slade, Robert. "UNIX Made Easy." 26 March 1996.
      <alt.books.reviews> (31 March 1996).

Real-time Communication

LambdaMOO. "Seminar Discussion on Netiquette." 28 May
      1996. <telnet://lambda.parc .xerox.edu:8888> (28 May 1996).

Telnet Site

Aquatic Conservation Network. "About the Aquatic Conservation
      Network." National Capital Freenet, n.d. <telnet://freenet.
      carleton.ca> login as guest, go acn, press 1 (28 May 1999).

FTP Site

everest2.gif[535K]. 4 April 1993. <ftp.ntua.gr/pub/images/views/
      sorted.by.type/Mountains/everest2.gif> (3 June 1999).

Gopher Site

Goody, Jack. "History and Anthropology: Convergence and
      Divergence." Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology 75, no. 2
      (Spring 1993): n.p. <gopher://gopher.sinica.edu.tw/00/ioe/
      engbull/75b.txt> (2 June 1999).

Emma Cogan

Emma Cogan

Emma’s undergraduate experience at Loyola formed the basis for her work in human rights and public health