Loyola University Maryland


David G. Crough, Ph.D.

David CroughProfessor Emeritus

Email: dcrough@loyola.edu


  • B.S. - Ursinus College
  • M.A. - The Catholic University of America
  • Ph.D. (Experimental & Physiological Psychology) - The Catholic University of America

Areas of Specialization 

My research interests derive from intersecting areas of evolutionary and forensic psychology. The focus of my research is on violence prevention. Methods of improving self-defense self-efficacy for women are of special interest. Current research projects involve gender differences in threat perception, physical self-efficacy, assertiveness, and vulnerability to assault. Several preliminary studies in the development of an "attitudes toward self-defense" scale and an "attitudes towards weapons" scale are ongoing.

Madeline Valentine


Madeline’s relationships with incredible faculty and mentors inspired her passion for research

Biology, Psychology